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Unregelmäßige Verben im Englischen

Englisch enthält mehrere Dutzend unregelmäßige Verben, die es nur auswendig zu lernen gilt. Trotzdem existieren zwischen ihnen gewisse Zusammenhänge, welche beim Lernen ausgenutzt werden können.

Unregelmäßige Verben finden sich auch in anderen Sprachen, Deutsch (DE), Spanisch (ES) ua. Diesen werden wir uns hier jedoch nicht widmen.

Unregelmäßige englische Verben - ihre Anwendung

Jedes Verb (regelmäßig oder unregelmäßig) hat drei Grundformen. Dies sind:

  • Infinitiv
  • Einfache Vergangenheit (Präteritum)
  • Zusammengesetzte Vergangenheit (Partizip Perfekt)

Im Falle regelmäßiger englischer Verben genügt es in allen Vergangenheitsformen dem Verb die Endung -ed anzufügen. Es ist die gleiche in der einfachen wie der zusammengesetzten Vergangenheit.

Betrachten wir im Gegensatz dazu unregelmäßige englische Verben, werden die beiden Formen, die eine Handlung in der Vergangenheit ausdrücken, anders gebildet – unregelmäßig halt. Es ist daher zwingend sie auswendig zu lernen.

Beispiel eines regelmäßigen Verbes

Gleich und doch anders

Einige unregelmäßige Verben besitzen im Englischen die gleiche orthografische Form im Infinitiv sowie den beiden Varianten der Vergangenheit. Z.B. das Verb read / read / read (lesen). Alle drei Formen dieses Verbes sind gleich. Aber Vorsicht, die Aussprache dieses Verbes im Infinitiv ist anders als im Präteritum und Partizip Perfekt: [ri:d] / [red] / [red].

Infinitiv Präteritum Partizip Perfekt
abide abided / abode * abided / abidden *
alight alighted / alit alighted / alit
arise arose arisen
awake awoke / awaked * awoken / awaked *
be / am / is /are was/were been
bear bore / bare * borne / born
beat beat beaten / beat
become became become
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld / beholden *
bend bent / bended * bent / bended *
bet bet / betted bet / betted
bid bade / bid bid
bind bound bound / bounden *
bite bit bitten / bit *
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke / brake * broken / broke *
breed bred bred
bring brought / brang * / brung * brought / brung */ broughten *
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burned / burnt burned / burnt
burst burst / brast * burst / bursten *
buy bought bought / boughten *
cast cast cast
catch caught / catched * caught / catched *
cling clung / clang * clung
clothe clothed / clad clothed / clad
come came come / comen *
cost cost / costed cost / costed
creep crept / creeped / crope * crept / creeped / cropen *
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug / digged * dug / digged *
dive dived / dove dived / dove
do / does did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed / dreamt / drempt * dreamed / dreamt / drempt *
drink drank / drunk * / drinked * drank / drunk * / drinked * / drunken *
drive drove / drave * driven
dwell dwelled / dwelt dwelled / dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell / felled * fallen / felled *
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought / foughten *
find found / fand * found / founden *
fit fitted / fit fitted / fit
flee fled fled
fling flung / flang * flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade / forbad / forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold / foretelled * foretold / foretelled *
forget forgot / forgat * forgotten / forgot*
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got / gat * got / gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground / grinded ground / grinded / grounden *
grow grew / growed * grew / growed *
hang hung / hanged hung / hanged
have / has had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden / hid *
hit hit hit
hold held held / holden *
hurt hurt hurt
choose chose chosen
inlay inlaid / inlayed * inlaid / inlayed *
input input input / inputten
keep kept kept
kneel kneeled / knelt kneeled / knelt
knit knitted / knit knitted / knit
know knew known / knowen *
lay laid /layed * laid /layed *
lead led led
lean leaned / leant leaned / leant
leap leaped / leapt / lept */ lope * leaped / leapt / lopen *
learn learned / learnt learned / learnt
leave left left / laft *
lend lent lent
let let / leet * let / letten *
lie lay lain / lien *
light lighted / lit lighted / lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mislead misled misled
mistake mistook / mistaked * mistaken
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood / misunderstanden **
overdraw overdrew overdrawn
overhear overheard overheard
overtake overtook / overtaked * overtaken
pay paid / payed * paid / payed *
prove proved proved / proven
put put put / putten *
quit quit / quitted quit / quitted
read read read / readen *
reprove reproved reproved / reproven
rid ridded / rid ridded / rid
ride rode / rid * ridden / rid *
ring rang / rung * rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set / setten *
sew sewed sewn / sewed / sewen *
shake shook / shaked * shaken / shaked */ shook *
shear sheared / shore sheared / shorn
shed shed shed
shine shone / shined shone / shined
shoe shoed / shod shodden / shoed / shod
shoot shot shot / shotten *
show showed / shew * shown / showed / shewed *
shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk / shrunken
shut shut shut
sing sang / sung * sung / sungen *
sink sank / sunk sunk / sunken
sit sat / sate * sat / sitten *
slay slew / slayed slain / slayed
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid / slidden *
sling slung / slang * slung
slink slunk / slinked / slank slunk / slinked / slank
slit slit slit / slitten
smell smelled / smelt smelled / smelt
sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck / snucked *
sow sowed / sew * sowed / sown
speak spoke / spake * spoken / spoke *
speed speedded / speed speedded / speed
spell spelled / spelt spelled / spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilled / spilt spilled / spilt
spin spun / span * spun
spit spit / spat spit / spat
split split split
spoil spoiled / spoilt spoiled / spoilt
spread spread / spreaded * spread / spreaded *
spring sprang / sprung sprung / sprang
stand stood stood / standen *
steal stole stolen
stick stuck / sticked * stuck / sticked *
sting stung / stang * stung
stink stank / stunk * stunk
stride strode / strided * stridden / strode / strid / stridded *
strike struck struck / stricken
strip stripped / stript stripped / stript
strive strove / strived striven / strived
swear swore sworn
sweat sweated / sweat sweated / sweat
sweep swept / sweeped * swept / sweeped *
swell swelled / swole * / swelt * swelled / swollen
swim swam / swum * swum
swing swung / swang swung / swungen *
take took / taked * taken
teach taught / teached * taught / teached *
tear tore torn
tell told / talled * told / talled *
think thought / thinked * thought / thinked *
thrive thrived / throve / thrave * thrived / throve
throw threw / throwed * threw / throwed *
thrust thrust / thrusted * thrust / thrusted *
tread trod / tread * / treaded * / trodden * trodden / trod / tread * / treaded *
undergo underwent undergone
understand understood understood / understanden *
undertake undertook / undertaked * undertaken
upset upset upset / upsetten *
vex vexed / vext * vexed / vext *
wake woke / waked * woken / waked *
wear wore / weared worn / weared
weave wove woven
wed wedded / wed wedded / wed
weep wept / weeped wept / weeped
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld / withholden *
withstand withstood withstood / withstanden *
wring wrang / wrung / wringed * wrung / wringed *
write wrote / writ * written / writ *
befall befell / befelled * befallen / befelled *
beget begot / begat * begot / begotten
beseech beseeched / besought * beseeched / besought *
beset beset beset / besetten *
bid bade bid
bless blessed / blest * blessed / blest *
bust busted / bust * busted / bust *
can could xxx
clap clapped / clapt * clapped / clapt *
cleave cleaved / cleft / clove / clave * cleaved / cleft / clove
crow crowed / crew crowed / crown *
heave heaved / hove * heaved / hove * / hoven *
hew hewed / hew * hewed / hewn
mow mowed mowed / mown
overcome overcame overcome / overcomen *
overthrow overthrew / overthrowed * overthrew / overthrowed *
partake partook / partaked * partaken
plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
retell retold / retelled * retold / retelled *
shred shredded / shred shredded / shred
strew strewed strewed / strewn
sublet sublet / subleet * sublet / subletten *
uphold upheld upheld / upholden *
bequeath bequeathed / bequethed / bequoth / bequod bequeathed / bequethed / bequoth / bequod
betake betook / betaked * betaken
chide chided / chid / chode * chided / chid / chidden
forbear forbore / forbare * forborne / forborn *
gird girded / girt * girded / girt *
interweave interwove interwoven
misspend misspent misspent
offset offset offset / offsetten *
outwear outweared / outwore outweared / outworn
overdo / overdoes overdid overdone
overeat overate / overet * overeaten
oversee oversaw overseen
oversleep overslept overslept
overwrite overwrote / overwrit overwritten / overwrit
rend rent rent
repay repaid / repayed * repaid / repayed *
rewrite rewrote / rewrit rewritten / rewrit
underpay underpaid / underpayed * underpaid / underpayed *
underwrite underwrote / underwrit underwrote / underwrit
undo / undoes undid undone
unwind unwound unwound
writhe writhed / wrothe * writhed / writhen *
overbear overbore / overbare * overborne / overborn
browbeat browbeat browbeaten / browbeat
unbend unbent / unbended * unbent / unbended *
outbid outbid outbid
overbid overbid overbid
underbid underbid underbid
unbind unbound unbound / unbounden *
interbreed interbred interbred
overbuild overbuilt overbuilt
recast recast recast
unclothe unclad / unclothed unclad / unclothed
crosscut crosscut crosscut
undercut undercut undercut
misdeal misdealt misdealt
misdo / misdoes misdid misdone
outdo / outdoes outdid outdone
redo / redoes redid redone
redraw redrew redrawn
test-drive test-drove / test-drave * test-driven
fret fretted / frate fretted / fretten
bottle-feed bottle-fed bottle-fed
force-feed force-feed force-feed
hand-feed hand-feed hand-feed
overfeed overfeed overfeed
self-feed self-feed self-feed
spoon-feed spoon-feed spoon-feed
underfeed underfeed underfeed
overfly overflew overflown
test-fly test-flew test-flown
quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
undergird undergirded / undergirt * undergirded / undergirt *
glide glided / glid / glode * glided / glid / glidden *
forego forewent foregone
forgo forwent forgone
outgrow outgrew / outgrowed * outgrew / outgrowed *
overgrow overgrew / overgrowed * overgrew / overgrowed *
mishear misheard misheard
upheave upheaved / uphove * upheaved / uphove * / uphoven *
help helped / holp * helped / holpen *
hoist hoisted/hoist hoisted/hoist
hand-knit hand-knit / hand-knitted hand-knit / hand-knitted
foreknow foreknew foreknown / foreknowen *
lade laded laden / laded
laugh laughed / laught * / laugh'd * / low * laughed / laught */ laugh'd * / laughen *
belay belaid / belayed * belaid / belayed *
mislay mislaid / mislayed * mislaid / mislayed *
re-lay re-laid / re-layed * re-laid / re-layed *
waylay waylaid / waylayed * waylaid / waylayed *
overleap overleaped / overleapt / overlept * / overlope * overleaped / overleapt / overlopen *
relearn relearned / relearnt relearned / relearnt
unlearn unlearned / unlearnt unlearned / unlearnt
overlie overlay overlain / overlien *
underlie underlay underlain / underlien *
green-light green-lighted / green-lit green-lighted / green-lit
relight relighted / relit relighted / relit
unmake unmade unmade
melt melted / molt * melted / molten
mix mixed / mixt * mixed / mixt *
must xxx xxx
overpay overpaid / overpayed * overpaid / overpayed *
prepay prepaid / prepayed * prepaid / prepayed *
queath ** / quethe ** queathed / quethed / quoth / quod queathed / quethed / quoth / quethen
reach reached / raught * / rought / retcht * reached / raught * / rought / retcht *
misread misread misread / misreaden *
reread reread reread / rereaden *
sight-read sight-read sight-read / sight-readen *
reave ** reaved/reft reaved/reft
outride outrode / outrid * outridden / outrid *
override overrode / overrid * overridden / overrid *
uprise uprose uprisen
rive rived / rove rived / riven
outrun outran outrun
overrun overran overrun
seethe seethed / sod * seethed / sodden *
outsell outsold outsold
resell resold resold
undersell undersold undersold
resend resent resent
inset inset inset / insetten
reset reset reset / resetten *
misshape misshaped / misshope * misshaped / misshapen *
outshine outshone / outshined outshone / outshined
shit shit / shitted / shat shit / shitted / shat / shitten *
overshoot overshot overshot / overshotten *
undershoot undershot undershot / undershotten *
foreshow foreshowed / foreshew * foreshown / foreshowed / foreshewed *
backslide backslid backslid / backslidden *
slip slipped / slipt * slipped / slipt *
smite smote / smit * smitten / smitted
bespeak bespoke / bespake * bespoken / bespoke *
overspend overspent overspent
overspread overspread overspread
stay stayed / staid * stayed / staid *
bestrew bestrewed bestrewn / bestrewed
bestride bestrode / bestrided * bestridden / bestrode * / bestrid * / bestridded *
hamstring hamstrung / hamstringed * hamstrung / hamstringed *
forswear forswore forsworn
retread retrod / retread * / retreaded * / retrodden * retrodden / retrod / retread * / retreaded *
wax waxed / wex * waxed / waxen *
wend wended / went * wended / went *
work worked / wrought * worked / wrought *
wreak wreaked / wrought * / wrack * / wroke * wreaked / wrought * / wreaken * / wroken *
ache / ake * ached / oke * ached / aken *
bake baked / book * baked / baken *
beware xxx xxx
blend blended / blent * blended / blent *
climb climbed / clomb * climbed / clumb *
comb combed combed / kempt
dare dared / durst * dared
ding dinged / dang * dinged / dung *
drag dragged / drug * dragged / drug *
dress dressed / drest * dressed / drest *
earn earned / earnt * earned / earnt *